Understanding the impact of parenting on teen behavior is crucial in comprehending the complex dynamics of adolescence. Parenting styles play a pivotal role in shaping the behavior and development of adolescents.
Previous studies have identified different styles of parenting, including authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved parenting styles, each with their distinct characteristics and effects on teenagers.
The relationship between parenting styles and adolescent behavior has been extensively researched, as it has significant implications for adolescent adjustment, academic achievement, and future outcomes.
By identifying and analyzing the potential role of parenting styles, researchers have been able to measure and analyze the influence of parenting on children, providing insights into how different styles can either facilitate or hinder adolescent development.
Let’s have a look at the four main parenting styles, and the impact of different parenting styles on behavior in adolescents.
- Understanding Teenage Behavior
- Most Common Parenting Styles for Teens
- 1. Authoritative Parenting Style (Warmth and Strictness)
- 2. Authoritarian Parenting (Strictness without Warmth)
- 3. Permissive Parenting (Warmth without Strictness)
- 4. Neglectful Parenting (Neither Warmth nor Strictness)
- The Psychological Impact of Different Parenting Styles
- Other Influential Factors
- Adjusting Parenting Styles for Positive Impact
- Mixing Parenting Styles
- Final Thoughts
Understanding Teenage Behavior
The teenage brain is a whirlwind of development, hormones, and change.
This often results in unpredictable behaviors, mood swings, and a constant push for independence.
It’s not just “rebellion” – it’s a natural phase of growth.
By understanding the reasons behind their actions, parents can approach situations with empathy and effectiveness.
Most Common Parenting Styles for Teens
1. Authoritative Parenting Style (Warmth and Strictness)
The authoritative parenting style, also known as the democratic parenting style, is characterized by a balanced approach that combines high levels of parental control with warmth and responsiveness.
This style of parenting emphasizes clear communication, reasoning, and setting age-appropriate limits and expectations for teenagers.
Authoritative parents provide guidance and support while also encouraging independence and autonomy.
Previous research has consistently shown that adolescents who have authoritative parents exhibit higher levels of academic achievement, psychosocial well-being, and overall positive adjustment.
This parenting style has been associated with positive parent-adolescent relationships, better problem-solving skills, and reduced engagement in risky behaviors such as substance abuse and delinquency.
The authoritative parenting style promotes open communication, mutual respect, and the development of important life skills, making it a highly effective approach for fostering healthy adolescent development.
🤓 Suggested reading: How To Transition To An Authoritative Parenting Style
Effects of Authoritative Parenting
Authoritative parenting is widely recognized as an effective democratic approach that leads to happy, capable, and successful children. This style of parenting is characterized by a balance between parental control and warmth, fostering an optimal environment for healthy adolescent development.
An authoritative parent is highly responsive, supportive, and nurturing. They establish clear rules and expectations while also providing explanations and justifications for these rules. When children fail to meet these expectations, authoritative parents are empathetic and understanding, using such instances as opportunities for growth and learning.
One of the key advantages of authoritative parenting is that children tend to comply with parental requests willingly. This is because they view their parents as reasonable and fair, understanding that their parents have their best interests at heart. As a result, children internalize rules and regulations, developing a sense of responsibility and self-discipline.
Numerous studies have shown that children raised in authoritative environments exhibit higher levels of academic achievement, emotional stability, and self-esteem. They also tend to engage in fewer problem behaviors such as delinquency and substance abuse. This is believed to be due to the positive relationships and open communication that authoritative parenting fosters.
2. Authoritarian Parenting (Strictness without Warmth)
Authoritarian parenting is a disciplinarian style characterized by high levels of control and demands for obedience. Parents who adopt this style tend to have strict rules and regulations that they expect their children to follow without question. They prioritize discipline and order, often resorting to punishment and harsh consequences for disobedience.
While authoritarian parents may have good intentions and believe that this approach instills discipline and respect, it can lead to negative outcomes for adolescent development.
Studies have shown that adolescents raised in authoritarian environments tend to have lower self-esteem, higher levels of anxiety, and poorer academic performance.
The lack of warmth and support in this parenting style can also strain the parent-child relationship and hinder open communication.
It is important for parents to recognize the limitations of authoritarian parenting and consider alternative approaches that prioritize empathy, understanding, and collaboration in order to support healthy adolescent behavior and adjustment.
Effects of Authoritarian Parenting
An authoritarian parenting style, characterized by strict rules and discipline without explanations or guidance, can have significant effects on children’s behavior and development.
In this parenting style, parents exert high levels of control and demand obedience from their children without taking their feelings or perspectives into account.
One of the notable outcomes of authoritarian parenting is lower levels of happiness, social competence, and self-esteem in children. Due to the lack of warmth and emotional support, children may feel less connected to their parents and struggle with forming positive relationships or effectively managing their emotions. This can lead to social difficulties and lower self-esteem.
Additionally, the strict nature of authoritarian parenting can result in children resorting to lying to avoid punishment. With limited opportunities for open communication and explanation, children may feel compelled to hide their actions or feelings out of fear of harsh consequences. This habit of lying can negatively impact their trustworthiness and hinder their ability to develop healthy relationships.
3. Permissive Parenting (Warmth without Strictness)
Permissive parenting, also known as indulgent parenting, is characterized by high levels of warmth and affection but low levels of control and discipline.
Parents who adopt this style tend to be lenient, avoiding setting clear boundaries or enforcing rules. While permissive parenting may initially be seen as nurturing and flexible, it can have negative effects on a teenager’s behavior and overall development.
Without consistent structure and guidance, adolescents may struggle with self-regulation and exhibit impulsive or defiant behavior.
They may also have difficulty with academic performance and achievement, as the lack of parental expectations and involvement can lead to a lack of motivation and direction.
Furthermore, due to the overly lenient nature of permissive parenting, teenagers may struggle with decision-making skills and have difficulty understanding and respecting authority in other areas of their lives.
Overall, although the nurturing aspect of the permissive parenting style has a positive correlation with family bonds and overall happiness, it can impact adolescents’ ability to develop important life skills and may hinder their success and well-being in various aspects of their lives.
This is especially noticeable in teens who are eager to explore new experiences and independence but need boundaries in place to keep them safe.
Effects of Permissive Parenting
Permissive parenting, characterized by low levels of discipline and high levels of warmth and responsiveness, can have significant effects on children’s behavior and development.
Studies have shown that children raised in permissive households may struggle with self-regulation. This is because permissive parents often fail to set clear boundaries and rules, which can make it difficult for children to learn how to control their impulses and regulate their emotions.
Furthermore, permissive parenting can contribute to authority problems in children. Without consistent discipline and clear expectations, children may have difficulty respecting authority figures and following rules both at home and in other areas of their lives, such as school. This can lead to a range of negative outcomes, including academic difficulties and behavior problems.
In terms of academic performance, permissive parenting has been associated with lower achievement levels. Without the structure and guidance provided by authoritative or authoritarian parenting styles, children may struggle with completing tasks, staying focused, and meeting academic expectations.
Additionally, permissive parenting has been linked to increased substance use, school misconduct, and disengagement from school. The lack of boundaries and supervision in permissive households can create an environment where experimentation with substances is more likely, and where children may engage in risky behaviors without considering the consequences.
Moreover, children raised in permissive households may experience lower self-esteem and less motivation to achieve.
Without clear expectations and constructive feedback, children may struggle to develop a sense of competence and may have less motivation to strive for success.
4. Neglectful Parenting (Neither Warmth nor Strictness)
Neglectful parenting, also known as uninvolved or disengaged parenting, is a style characterized by a lack of emotional involvement, responsiveness, and attention to the child’s needs.
In neglectful households, parents may be preoccupied with their own issues and may not prioritize their child’s well-being or development.
This parenting style can have significant impacts on adolescent behavior. Research has shown that children raised in neglectful households are more likely to exhibit a range of negative outcomes, including poor academic performance, behavioral problems, and difficulties forming positive relationships.
Without the emotional support and guidance provided by involved parents, adolescents may struggle with self-esteem, emotional instability, and impulse control.
The lack of parental supervision and involvement in their lives can also increase the likelihood of engaging in antisocial behavior and risky activities.
It is important to recognize the detrimental effects of neglectful parenting and to provide support and resources for both parents and adolescents in these situations.
Effects of Uninvolved Parenting
Uninvolved parenting, also known as neglectful parenting, refers to a parenting style characterized by low levels of responsiveness and involvement. This style of parenting has significant negative effects on children’s development and behavior.
Children raised by neglectful parents tend to struggle in school. They often have poor school performance and lower academic achievement compared to their peers. This may be due to a lack of guidance, support, and supervision from their parents.
In addition, children of neglectful parents have worse social relationships. They may struggle to form positive and healthy relationships with their peers and have difficulty trusting others. This can lead to feelings of loneliness and isolation during adolescence and beyond.
Furthermore, children raised by neglectful parents often struggle with emotional regulation. They may have difficulty managing and expressing their emotions in appropriate ways. This can result in emotional instability and can contribute to the development of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety.
There are numerous negative outcomes associated with uninvolved parenting. In addition to poor school performance, children may exhibit impulsive behavior, engage in delinquent activities, and have an increased risk of developing addiction problems. They may also be more susceptible to drug abuse or alcoholism later in life.
The Psychological Impact of Different Parenting Styles
Parenting doesn’t just shape behaviors; it molds the very psyche of a teen.
The style of parenting employed by parents can have profound effects on their child’s academics, mental health, self-esteem, social relationships, and even their adult relationships.
Let’s explore how different styles impact various facets of a teen’s psychological development.
1. Self-esteem and self-worth
Self-esteem is another area impacted by parenting styles.
Authoritative parents who provide warmth, support, and encouragement tend to have children with higher self-esteem and a positive self-concept.
On the other hand, authoritarian or permissive parenting can contribute to lower self-esteem due to excessive criticism or lack of boundaries.
Authoritative: Fosters a sense of worth, encouraging teens to value themselves and their abilities.
Authoritarian: May cause a feeling of never being ‘good enough,’ potentially diminishing self-esteem.
Permissive: Can lead to overconfidence or a lack of self-awareness about one’s limitations.
Neglectful: Often results in a low sense of self-worth, feeling unvalued and overlooked.
2. Social skills and peer relationships
Parenting styles also influence a child’s social relationships.
Research indicates that children raised by authoritative parents are more likely to have positive and healthy peer relationships, while those with authoritarian or neglectful parents may struggle to form connections and maintain trust.
When it comes to reducing sibling conflicts, an authoritative approach might be the most effective approach (Liu et al 2022).
This can have long-lasting implications for their adult relationships, as the ability to establish and maintain healthy interpersonal relationships is influenced by early experiences with parents.
Authoritative: Empowers teens to form healthy relationships, valuing respect and mutual understanding.
Authoritarian: May cause difficulty in forming peer relationships due to suppressed emotions or fear of authority.
Permissive: Potential for forming relationships based on surface-level connections; could struggle with boundaries and authority.
Neglectful: Often leads to an intense yearning for acceptance, potentially forming unhealthy bonds.
3. Academic performance and ambition
Authoritarian parenting, characterized by strict rules and high expectations, has been found to have mixed effects on academics.
While it may promote discipline and motivation, it can also increase the likelihood of anxiety and fear of failure.
Conversely, authoritative parenting, which combines warmth and support with reasonable expectations, has consistently been associated with positive academic outcomes.
Research has shown that children raised in authoritative families tend to have higher academic achievement, greater self-confidence, and stronger problem-solving and critical-thinking skills.
Authoritative: Encourages academic diligence and fosters ambition.
Authoritarian: Creates pressure for perfection, potentially leading to burnout.
Permissive: Can lack motivation or drive, relying heavily on external motivators.
Neglectful: Academic neglect, lacking both ambition and support.
4. Mental health and well-being
Parenting styles also play a crucial role in shaping a child’s mental health.
Authoritative parenting fosters emotional stability and resilience, leading to lower rates of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety.
In contrast, harsh and authoritarian parenting has been linked to higher levels of emotional instability and psychological distress.
Authoritative: Provides a balance of support, leading to healthier mental well-being.
Authoritarian: Risks developing anxiety or depressive disorders due to excessive pressure.
Permissive: Potential lack of coping mechanisms or resilience.
Neglectful: High risk for numerous mental health issues, from depression to anxiety.
It is crucial for parents to be aware of the long-term consequences of their parenting style and strive to employ authoritative practices that provide support, love, and appropriate boundaries for their children.
❤️ Suggested reading: Coping Skills For Teens With Anxiety, Depression & Anger
Other Influential Factors
Parenting, while pivotal, isn’t the sole factor influencing a teen. Factors like socioeconomic background, parental education, and even gender differences play crucial roles in determining the effects of parenting.
Reports on parenting styles often indicate stark differences, especially when comparing advantaged families to those from varying family backgrounds.
Other factors include:
Individual Differences: Each teen is a unique individual with temperaments, experiences, and perceptions. Parenting styles might need tailoring to fit each teen’s distinct needs.
External Influencers: Peers, media, and the school environment can deeply influence a teen. The era of social media has intensified peer pressures, and the school environment can either be a haven of support or a source of stress.
Dynamic Adjustments: The parent-teen relationship isn’t static. It’s an evolving dynamic, influenced by both the teen’s development and external life changes.
Mother vs Father’s Parenting Influence: There is also a difference in how a mother’s and a father’s parenting styles can affect a child. A study published in 2007 revealed that students with neglectful mothers and authoritative fathers presented the highest level of clinical maladjustment in teens.
Cultural Differences: According to a study on cultural differences in parenting practices, a significant difference was found in that Asian American parents had higher adherence to Asian cultural values related to parental control and academic excellence and tended to be more authoritarian than their Caucasian counterparts.
Adjusting Parenting Styles for Positive Impact
Understanding and adapting is at the heart of effective parenting.
Recognizing Mismatches: Pay attention to your teen’s feedback, both spoken and unspoken. If something isn’t working, it might be a sign that your style needs a tweak.
Adapt and Evolve: Understand that what worked during your teen’s pre-adolescent years might not work now. Be ready to evolve your approach. A study conducted in Spain and published in 2019 found that when assessing aggressive behavior in teens, the indulgent parenting style was associated with the best outcomes across all the criteria.
While previous evidence has suggested that parental strictness and imposition might be beneficial to raising aggressive adolescents, the current study highlights the positive effects of parental warmth on even aggressive children.
Open Communication: Foster an environment where your teen feels safe discussing their feelings and concerns. It’s not about being right; it’s about understanding.
Balance is Key: While rules and boundaries are essential, so is empathy. Recognize the thin line between discipline and dictatorship.
Mixing Parenting Styles
When it comes to parenting, there is no one-size-fits-all approach. Many parents find that combining different parenting styles can create a more cohesive and effective approach to raising their children. This blending of styles allows parents to take advantage of the benefits of each style while addressing the unique needs of their child.
However, mixing parenting styles can also pose challenges. One challenge is finding a balance between the different styles to ensure consistency and clarity for the child. It can be challenging to navigate between the expectations and discipline of an authoritarian style and the nurturing and flexibility of an authoritative style, for example.
Additionally, parents may face criticism or confusion from others who may not understand or agree with their blended approach.
Despite these challenges, there are also several benefits to mixing parenting styles. By combining different approaches, parents can create a more well-rounded and adaptable parenting style that meets the diverse needs of their children. This can promote healthy emotional and social development, as well as enhance the child’s ability to navigate different environments and relationships.
Overall, a cohesive approach that combines different parenting styles can be a powerful tool for parents to meet their child’s individual needs, promote healthy development, and foster positive relationships.
The teenage years are filled with growth, exploration, and discovery. As parents, our role is to guide, support, and sometimes let go.
While parenting styles offer a guiding framework, it’s the amalgamation of multiple factors that shape a teen’s behavior.
It’s evident that parenting, with its myriad approaches from behavioral control to harsh parenting, significantly affects adolescent risk behaviors and overall psychosocial development.
While uninvolved parents and those practicing harsh parenting can lead to challenges in adjustment among adolescents, parental warmth paired with the right behavioral control often yields positive outcomes.
Differences in parenting style are sometimes the largest difference in the experiences of children with parents from diverse backgrounds. The effects of parenting may vary greatly based on socioeconomic background, levels of education, and even gender differences. However, it’s also vital to consider other influencing factors such as extracurricular and parental activities.
This journey into the dynamics of parenting on child development has revealed a spectrum of practices and outcomes, emphasizing the need for a continued, deeper understanding of this pivotal aspect of family life.
By understanding the various parenting styles and techniques, we can ensure a strong and trusting relationship with our teens, setting them up for a successful transition into adulthood.
1. Relationships between parenting styles and psychopathic traits in childhood.Psicología Conductual/Behavioral Psychology,20, 603–623. Source: prc.springeropen.com
2. The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 12(1), 1 – 10. Source: journals.copmadrid.org
3. The influence of parenting on building character in adolescents. Soucre: Science Direct
4. Effects of parenting style and involvement in sibling conflict on adolescent sibling relationships. December 2011. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 28(8):1130-1148
5. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 47: 79–93.Journal of Population Economics32: 1315–1352. Parenting style and the development of human capital in children.
6. Chang, Mimi (2018). Cultural differences in parenting styles and their effects on teens’ self-esteem, perceived parental relationship satisfaction, and self-satisfaction. Carnegie Mellon University. Thesis. https://doi.org/10.1184/R1/6684062.v1
7. Perez-Gramaje, A. F., Garcia, O. F., Reyes, M., Serra, E., and Garcia, F. (2019). Parenting Styles and Aggressive Adolescents: Relationships with Self-esteem and Personal Maladjustment. The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 12(1), 1 – 10.